Playing with Lasp and CRDTs

For a long time I was looking for some time to play with Lasp:

Lasp is a suite of libraries aimed at providing a comprehensive programming
system for planetary scale Elixir and Erlang applications.

Yesterday I had some time and played a little bit with it, and thanks to the help from @cmeik and @vitorenesduarte I got some code running and understood some things.

Here is what I achieved until now, note that I'm learning this stuff so I may say many things that are wrong, I will try to get people to review it and update it with the corrections.

Some initial snippets of code we will reuse:

% clear all variable bindings
f().
Key1 = <<"key1">>.
Key2 = <<"key2">>.
Timestamp = fun () -> erlang:unique_integer([monotonic, positive]) end.

A map with any type as value

If we want to have data which can be represented as a dict/map/key-value mapping, there are multiple alternatives we can use in lasp, here we will explore some.

First we are going to use an AwMap CRDT as a map which is defined as:

A dictionary where keys can be anything and the values are causal-CRDTs.

Since values must be casual-CRDTs we can't use a bare erlang type as value nor a non causal-CRDT type like lwwregister, which we will use later with another map type.

AwMapType = {state_awmap, [state_mvregister]}.
AwMapVarName = <<"awmap">>.
AwMapVal = #{what => i_am_an_awmap_value}.

% declare the variable
{ok, {AwMap, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({AwMapVarName, AwMapType}, AwMapType).

% update its content setting Key1 = AwMapVal
{ok, {AwMap1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AwMap, {apply, Key1,
                                              {set, Timestamp(), AwMapVal}},
                                      self()).
% timestamp argument is not needed in mvregister, it's only for compatibility
% with lwwregister
{ok, _} = lasp:update(AwMap, {apply, Key1, {set, nil, AwMapVal}}, self()).

% get the value
{ok, AwMapRes} = lasp:query(AwMap1).

AwMapRes.
% {ok,[{<<"key1">>, {set, ...#{what => i_am_an_awmap_value} ... }}]}

[{_, AwMapSet}] = AwMapRes.
sets:to_list(AwMapSet).
% [#{what => i_am_an_awmap_value}]

We can also use a GMap CRDT (Grow Only Map, keys can't be removed):

A dictionary where keys can be anything and the values are join-semilattices.

In this case we can use non causal-CRDTs as values, to make it a little different we are going to use another register type, a lwwregister

GMapType = {state_gmap, [state_lwwregister]}.
GMapVarName = <<"gmap">>.
GMapVal = #{what => i_am_a_gmap_value}.

{ok, {GMap, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({GMapVarName, GMapType}, GMapType).
{ok, {GMap1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GMap, {apply, Key1,
                                            {set, Timestamp(), GMapVal}},
                                            self()).

{ok, GMapRes} = lasp:query(GMap1).

GMapRes.
% [{<<"key1">>,#{thing => 42,what => i_am_a_gmap_value}}]

[{_, GMapResVal}] = GMapRes.

GMapResVal.
% #{what => i_am_a_gmap_value}

We can use a gmap with an ivar as value type, an ivar is a register that can only be set once.

GMapIVarType = {state_gmap, [state_ivar]}.
GMapIVarVarName = <<"gmapivar">>.
GMapIVarVal1 = #{what => i_am_a_gmap_ivar_value}.
GMapIVarVal2 = #{what => i_am_a_gmap_ivar_update}.

{ok, {GMapIVar, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({GMapIVarVarName, GMapIVarType}, GMapIVarType).
{ok, {GMapIVar1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GMapIVar, {apply, Key1,
                                            {set, GMapIVarVal1}},
                                            self()).
% try updating it, will throw an error (the value of GMapIVar1 will be lost)
{ok, {GMapIVar2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GMapIVar1, {apply, Key1,
                                            {set, GMapIVarVal2}},
                                            self()).

{ok, GMapIVarRes} = lasp:query(GMapIVar1).

GMapIVarRes.

[{_, GMapIVarResVal}] = GMapIVarRes.

GMapIVarResVal.
% #{what => i_am_a_gmap_ivar_value}

Types

My examples are all maps with some value type because that's the use case I'm most interested, here's a list of types and their operations:

"Scalars"

boolean

Operations:

true
Can be set to true once

Example:

BoolType = state_boolean.
BoolVarName = <<"boolvar">>.

{ok, {Bool, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({BoolVarName, BoolType}, BoolType).
{ok, {Bool1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(Bool, true, self()).

{ok, BoolRes} = lasp:query(Bool1).

BoolRes.
% true

ewflag:

Enable-Wins Flag CRDT

Operations:

enable
Enable the flag
disable
Disable the flag

Example:

EWType = state_ewflag.
EWVarName = <<"ewvar">>.

{ok, {EW, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({EWVarName, EWType}, EWType).
{ok, {EW1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(EW, enable, self()).
{ok, EWRes1} = lasp:query(EW1).
{ok, {EW2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(EW1, disable, self()).
{ok, EWRes2} = lasp:query(EW2).
{ok, {EW3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(EW2, enable, self()).
{ok, EWRes3} = lasp:query(EW3).

EWRes1.
% true
EWRes2.
% false
EWRes3.
% true

dwflag:

Disable-Wins Flag CRDT

Follows the same strategy used in Enable-Wins Flag but,
instead of creating a new dot when enabling the flag,
we create a new dot when disabling it.

Operations:

enable
Enable the flag
disable
Disable the flag

Example:

DWType = state_dwflag.
DWVarName = <<"dwvar">>.

{ok, {DW, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({DWVarName, DWType}, DWType).
{ok, {DW1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(DW, enable, self()).
{ok, DWRes1} = lasp:query(DW1).
{ok, {DW2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(DW1, disable, self()).
{ok, DWRes2} = lasp:query(DW2).
{ok, {DW3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(DW2, enable, self()).
{ok, DWRes3} = lasp:query(DW3).

DWRes1.
% true
DWRes2.
% false
DWRes3.
% true

GCounter CRDT: grow only counter

Operations:

increment
Increment the counter by 1

Example:

GCountType = state_gcounter.
GCountVarName = <<"gcountvar">>.

{ok, {GCount, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({GCountVarName, GCountType}, GCountType).
{ok, {GCount1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GCount, increment, self()).
{ok, GCountRes1} = lasp:query(GCount1).
{ok, {GCount2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GCount1, increment, self()).
{ok, GCountRes2} = lasp:query(GCount2).
{ok, {GCount3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GCount2, increment, self()).
{ok, GCountRes3} = lasp:query(GCount3).

GCountRes1.
% 1
GCountRes2.
% 2
GCountRes3.
% 3

Some more I don't get completely what they could be used for:

Bounded Counter CRDT:

Modeled as a pair where the first component is a PNCounter and the second
component is a GMap.

This counter has sub counter for different ids (actors), each of which can't go below 0, with this you can model things like seats or some resource where you allocate counts to different parties (actors) and each can decrement their own count but not others, also each counter can't go below 0, if a given actor needs to decrement it has to move counts from other actor.

Operations:

{move, term()}
Moves permissions to decrement to another replica (if it has enough permissions)
increment
Increment counter, can always happen
decrement
Decrement counter, can happen when the replica has enough local increments, or has permissions received from other replicas

Example:

BCountType = state_bcounter.
BCountVarName = <<"bcountvar">>.
Actor1 = self().
Actor2 = <<"actor2-id">>.

{ok, {BCount, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({BCountVarName, BCountType}, BCountType).
{ok, {BCount1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(BCount, increment, Actor1).
{ok, BCountRes1} = lasp:query(BCount1).
{ok, {BCount2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(BCount1, increment, Actor2).
{ok, BCountRes2} = lasp:query(BCount2).
{ok, {BCount3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(BCount2, decrement, Actor1).
{ok, BCountRes3} = lasp:query(BCount3).

% here Actor1 has counter set to 0, can't go below 0, if it want's to
% decrement it has to move a 1 from another actor, Actor2 has 1 in its
% counter so we will move it and then decrement

BCountMoveFrom = Actor2.
BCountMoveTo = Actor1.
{ok, {BCount4, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(BCount3, {move, 1, BCountMoveTo}, BCountMoveFrom).

% now we can decrement from Actor1
{ok, {BCount5, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(BCount4, decrement, Actor1).
{ok, BCountRes5} = lasp:query(BCount5).

BCountRes1.
% 1
BCountRes2.
% 2
BCountRes3.
% 1

BCountRes5.
% 0

Max Int CRDT

Operations:

  • increment

Example:

MaxIntType = state_max_int.
MaxIntVarName = <<"maxintvar">>.

{ok, {MaxInt, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({MaxIntVarName, MaxIntType}, MaxIntType).
{ok, {MaxInt1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(MaxInt, increment, self()).
{ok, MaxIntRes1} = lasp:query(MaxInt1).
{ok, {MaxInt2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(MaxInt1, increment, self()).
{ok, MaxIntRes2} = lasp:query(MaxInt2).
{ok, {MaxInt3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(MaxInt2, increment, self()).
{ok, MaxIntRes3} = lasp:query(MaxInt3).

MaxIntRes1.
% 1
MaxIntRes2.
% 2
MaxIntRes3.
% 3

Lexicographic Counter

Operations:

  • increment
  • decrement

Example:

LCountType = state_lexcounter.
LCountVarName = <<"lexcountvar">>.

{ok, {LCount, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({LCountVarName, LCountType}, LCountType).
{ok, {LCount1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(LCount, increment, self()).
{ok, LCountRes1} = lasp:query(LCount1).
{ok, {LCount2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(LCount1, increment, self()).
{ok, LCountRes2} = lasp:query(LCount2).
{ok, {LCount3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(LCount2, decrement, self()).
{ok, LCountRes3} = lasp:query(LCount3).

LCountRes1.
% 1
LCountRes2.
% 2
LCountRes3.
% 1

PNCounter CRDT:

Counter that allows both increments and decrements.

Modeled as a dictionary where keys are replicas ids and values are pairs
where the first component is the number of increments and the second component
is the number of decrements.

An actor may only update its own entry in the dictionary.

The value of the counter is the sum of all first components minus the sum
of all second components.

Operations:

  • increment
  • decrement

Example:

PNCountType = state_pncounter.
PNCountVarName = <<"pncountvar">>.

{ok, {PNCount, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({PNCountVarName, PNCountType}, PNCountType).
{ok, {PNCount1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(PNCount, increment, self()).
{ok, PNCountRes1} = lasp:query(PNCount1).
{ok, {PNCount2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(PNCount1, increment, self()).
{ok, PNCountRes2} = lasp:query(PNCount2).
{ok, {PNCount3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(PNCount2, decrement, self()).
{ok, PNCountRes3} = lasp:query(PNCount3).

PNCountRes1.
% 1
PNCountRes2.
% 2
PNCountRes3.
% 1

"Registers"

LWWRegister:

We assume timestamp are unique, totally ordered and consistent
with causal order. We use integers as timestamps.
When using this, make sure you provide globally unique timestamps.

Operations:

{set, Timestamp, Value}
Set register to Value

Example:

LWWRegType = state_lwwregister.
LWWRegVarName = <<"lwwregister">>.

{ok, {LWWReg, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({LWWRegVarName, LWWRegType}, LWWRegType).
{ok, {LWWReg1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(LWWReg, {set, Timestamp(), foo}, self()).
{ok, LWWRegRes1} = lasp:query(LWWReg1).
{ok, {LWWReg2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(LWWReg1, {set, Timestamp(), bar}, self()).
{ok, LWWRegRes2} = lasp:query(LWWReg2).
{ok, {LWWReg3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(LWWReg2, {set, Timestamp(), baz}, self()).
{ok, LWWRegRes3} = lasp:query(LWWReg3).

LWWRegRes1.
% foo
LWWRegRes2.
% bar
LWWRegRes3.
% baz

IVar:

Single-assignment variable.
Write once register.

Operations:

{set, Value}
Set register to Value (only possible once)
IVarRegType = state_ivar.
IVarRegVarName = <<"ivar">>.

{ok, {IVarReg, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({IVarRegVarName, IVarRegType}, IVarRegType).
{ok, {IVarReg1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(IVarReg, {set, foo}, self()).
{ok, IVarRegRes1} = lasp:query(IVarReg1).

IVarRegRes1.
% foo

MVRegister:

Multi-Value Register CRDT.

Operations:

{set, Timestamp, Value}
the Timestamp will not be used. in order to have an unified API for all registers (since LWWRegister needs to receive a timestamp), the timestamp is also supplied here

Example:

MVRegType = state_mvregister.
MVRegVarName = <<"mvregister">>.

{ok, {MVReg, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({MVRegVarName, MVRegType}, MVRegType).
{ok, {MVReg1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(MVReg, {set, Timestamp(), foo}, self()).
{ok, MVRegRes1} = lasp:query(MVReg1).
{ok, {MVReg2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(MVReg1, {set, nil, bar}, self()).
{ok, MVRegRes2} = lasp:query(MVReg2).
{ok, {MVReg3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(MVReg2, {set, Timestamp(), baz}, self()).
{ok, MVRegRes3} = lasp:query(MVReg3).

sets:to_list(MVRegRes1).
% [foo]
sets:to_list(MVRegRes2).
% [bar]
sets:to_list(MVRegRes3).
% [baz]

Collections

AWMap CRDT:

Modeled as a dictionary where keys can be anything and the values are
causal-CRDTs.

Operations:

{apply, Key, Op}
Update Key with operation Op (since value is a type, you have to supply an operation, for example if it's a register it may be set, if it's a counter it could be increment).
{rmv, Key}
Remove Key

Example:

AwMapType = {state_awmap, [state_mvregister]}.
AwMapVarName = <<"awmap">>.
AwMapVal1 = foo.
AwMapVal2 = bar.

{ok, {AwMap, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({AwMapVarName, AwMapType}, AwMapType).

{ok, {AwMap1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AwMap, {apply, Key1,
                                              {set, Timestamp(), AwMapVal1}},
                                      self()).

{ok, {AwMap2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AwMap1, {apply, Key1,
                                              {set, Timestamp(), AwMapVal2}},
                                      self()).

{ok, {AwMap3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AwMap2, {apply, Key2,
                                              {set, Timestamp(), AwMapVal1}},
                                      self()).

{ok, AwMapRes3} = lasp:query(AwMap3).

{ok, {AwMap4, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AwMap3, {rmv, Key2}, self()).

{ok, AwMapRes4} = lasp:query(AwMap4).

% before removing Key2
[{K, sets:to_list(V)} || {K, V} <- AwMapRes3].
% [{<<"key1">>,[bar]},{<<"key2">>,[foo]}]

[{K, sets:to_list(V)} || {K, V} <- AwMapRes4].
% [{<<"key1">>,[bar]}]

GMap CRDT:

Grow only map.
Modeled as a dictionary where keys can be anything and the
values are join-semilattices.
{apply, Key, Op}
Update Key with operation Op (since value is a type, you have to supply an operation, for example if it's a register it may be set, if it's a counter it could be increment).

Example:

GMapType = {state_gmap, [state_lwwregister]}.
GMapVarName = <<"gmap">>.
GMapVal1 = foo.
GMapVal2 = bar.

{ok, {GMap, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({GMapVarName, GMapType}, GMapType).

{ok, {GMap1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GMap, {apply, Key1,
                                              {set, Timestamp(), GMapVal1}},
                                      self()).

{ok, {GMap2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GMap1, {apply, Key1,
                                              {set, Timestamp(), GMapVal2}},
                                      self()).

{ok, {GMap3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GMap2, {apply, Key2,
                                              {set, Timestamp(), GMapVal1}},
                                      self()).

{ok, GMapRes3} = lasp:query(GMap3).
% {ok,[{<<"key1">>,bar},{<<"key2">>,foo}]}

MVMap:

Multi-Value Map CRDT.
MVMap = AWMap<MVRegister<V>>

Operations:

{set, Key, Value}
Set Key to Value

Example:

MVMapType = state_mvmap.
MVMapVarName = <<"mvmap">>.
MVMapVal1 = foo.
MVMapVal2 = bar.

{ok, {MVMap, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({MVMapVarName, MVMapType}, MVMapType).

{ok, {MVMap1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(MVMap, {set, Key1, MVMapVal1}, self()).
{ok, {MVMap2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(MVMap1, {set, Key1, MVMapVal2}, self()).
{ok, {MVMap3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(MVMap2, {set, Key2, MVMapVal1}, self()).

{ok, MVMapRes3} = lasp:query(MVMap3).

[{K, sets:to_list(V)} || {K, V} <- MVMapRes3].
% [{<<"key1">>,[bar]},{<<"key2">>,[foo]}]

Pair

Operations:

{fst, Value}
Mutates the first item in the pair
{snd, Value}
Mutates the second item in the pair

Example:

PairLeftType = state_lwwregister.
PairRightType = state_gcounter.
PairType = {state_pair, [PairLeftType, PairRightType]}.
PairVarName = <<"pair">>.
PairVal1 = foo.
PairVal2 = bar.

{ok, {Pair, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({PairVarName, PairType}, PairType).

{ok, {Pair1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(Pair, {fst, {set, Timestamp(), PairVal1}}, self()).
{ok, {Pair2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(Pair1, {snd, increment}, self()).
{ok, {Pair3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(Pair2, {fst, {set, Timestamp(), PairVal2}}, self()).
{ok, {Pair4, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(Pair3, {snd, increment}, self()).

{ok, PairRes4} = lasp:query(Pair4).

PairRes4.
% {bar,2}

ORSet CRDT:

Observed-Remove Set with tombstones
{add, Element}
Add Element to the Set
{add_by_token, token(), element()}
Add Element to the Set by Token (orset internally generates a unique token for the element, therefore, it's not deterministic, this allows it to be explicit, and therefore deterministic)
{add_all, ListOfElements}
Add a list of elements to the set
{rmv, Element}
Remove Element from the set
{rmv_all, ListOfElements}
Remove a list of elements from the set

Example:

ORSetType = state_orset.
ORSetVarName = <<"orset">>.
ORSetVal1 = foo.
ORSetVal2 = bar.
ORSetVal3 = baz.
ORSetAllVals = [ORSetVal1, ORSetVal2, ORSetVal3].

{ok, {ORSet, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({ORSetVarName, ORSetType}, ORSetType).

{ok, {ORSet1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(ORSet, {add, ORSetVal1}, self()).
{ok, {ORSet2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(ORSet1, {add, ORSetVal2}, self()).
% repeat value
{ok, {ORSet3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(ORSet2, {add, ORSetVal1}, self()).
{ok, {ORSet4, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(ORSet3, {add, ORSetVal3}, self()).

{ok, ORSetRes4} = lasp:query(ORSet4).
sets:to_list(ORSetRes4).
% [bar,baz,foo]

{ok, {ORSet5, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(ORSet4, {rmv, ORSetVal3}, self()).
{ok, ORSetRes5} = lasp:query(ORSet5).
sets:to_list(ORSetRes5).
% [bar,foo]

{ok, {ORSet6, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(ORSet5, {rmv_all, ORSetAllVals}, self()).
{ok, ORSetRes6} = lasp:query(ORSet6).
sets:to_list(ORSetRes6).
% []

{ok, {ORSet7, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(ORSet6, {add_all, ORSetAllVals}, self()).
{ok, ORSetRes7} = lasp:query(ORSet7).
sets:to_list(ORSetRes7).
% [bar,baz,foo]

Add-Wins ORSet CRDT:

Observed-Remove Set without tombstones

Operations:

{add, Element}
Add Element to the Set
{add_all, ListOfElements}
Add a list of elements to the set
{rmv, Element}
Remove Element from the set
{rmv_all, ListOfElements}
Remove a list of elements from the set
{filter, Function}
Filter elements in the set

Example:

AWSetType = state_awset.
AWSetVarName = <<"awset">>.
AWSetVal1 = foo.
AWSetVal2 = bar.
AWSetVal3 = baz.
AWSetAllVals = [AWSetVal1, AWSetVal2, AWSetVal3].

{ok, {AWSet, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({AWSetVarName, AWSetType}, AWSetType).

{ok, {AWSet1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWSet, {add, AWSetVal1}, self()).
{ok, {AWSet2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWSet1, {add, AWSetVal2}, self()).
% repeat value
{ok, {AWSet3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWSet2, {add, AWSetVal1}, self()).
{ok, {AWSet4, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWSet3, {add, AWSetVal3}, self()).

{ok, AWSetRes4} = lasp:query(AWSet4).
sets:to_list(AWSetRes4).
% [bar,baz,foo]

{ok, {AWSet5, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWSet4, {rmv, AWSetVal3}, self()).
{ok, AWSetRes5} = lasp:query(AWSet5).
sets:to_list(AWSetRes5).
% [bar,foo]

{ok, {AWSet6, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWSet5, {rmv_all, AWSetAllVals}, self()).
{ok, AWSetRes6} = lasp:query(AWSet6).
sets:to_list(AWSetRes6).
% []

{ok, {AWSet7, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWSet6, {add_all, AWSetAllVals}, self()).
{ok, AWSetRes7} = lasp:query(AWSet7).
sets:to_list(AWSetRes7).
% [bar,baz,foo]

Add-Wins Set CRDT with the provenance semiring:

add-wins set without tombstones

Operations:

{add, Element}
Add Element to the Set
{add_all, ListOfElements}
Add a list of elements to the set
{rmv, Element}
Remove Element from the set
{rmv_all, ListOfElements}
Remove a list of elements from the set

Example:

AWPSSetType = state_awset_ps.
AWPSSetVarName = <<"awset_ps">>.
AWPSSetVal1 = foo.
AWPSSetVal2 = bar.
AWPSSetVal3 = baz.
AWPSSetAllVals = [AWPSSetVal1, AWPSSetVal2, AWPSSetVal3].

{ok, {AWPSSet, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({AWPSSetVarName, AWPSSetType}, AWPSSetType).

{ok, {AWPSSet1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWPSSet, {add, AWPSSetVal1}, self()).
{ok, {AWPSSet2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWPSSet1, {add, AWPSSetVal2}, self()).
% repeat value
{ok, {AWPSSet3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWPSSet2, {add, AWPSSetVal1}, self()).
{ok, {AWPSSet4, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWPSSet3, {add, AWPSSetVal3}, self()).

{ok, AWPSSetRes4} = lasp:query(AWPSSet4).
sets:to_list(AWPSSetRes4).
% [bar,baz,foo]

{ok, {AWPSSet5, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWPSSet4, {rmv, AWPSSetVal3}, self()).
{ok, AWPSSetRes5} = lasp:query(AWPSSet5).
sets:to_list(AWPSSetRes5).
% [bar,foo]

{ok, {AWPSSet6, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWPSSet5, {rmv_all, AWPSSetAllVals}, self()).
{ok, AWPSSetRes6} = lasp:query(AWPSSet6).
sets:to_list(AWPSSetRes6).
% []

{ok, {AWPSSet7, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(AWPSSet6, {add_all, AWPSSetAllVals}, self()).
{ok, AWPSSetRes7} = lasp:query(AWPSSet7).
sets:to_list(AWPSSetRes7).
% [bar,baz,foo]

GSet CRDT:

Grow only set

Operations:

{add, Element}
Add Element to the Set

Example:

GSetType = state_gset.
GSetVarName = <<"gset">>.
GSetVal1 = foo.
GSetVal2 = bar.
GSetVal3 = baz.
GSetAllVals = [GSetVal1, GSetVal2, GSetVal3].

{ok, {GSet, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({GSetVarName, GSetType}, GSetType).

{ok, {GSet1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GSet, {add, GSetVal1}, self()).
{ok, {GSet2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GSet1, {add, GSetVal2}, self()).
% repeat value
{ok, {GSet3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GSet2, {add, GSetVal1}, self()).
{ok, {GSet4, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(GSet3, {add, GSetVal3}, self()).

{ok, GSetRes4} = lasp:query(GSet4).
sets:to_list(GSetRes4).
% [bar,baz,foo]

2PSet CRDT:

Two-Phased Set

Once removed, elements cannot be added again.

Also, this is not an observed removed variant.

This means elements can be removed before being in the set.

Operations:

{add, Element}
Add Element to the Set
{rmv, Element}
Remove Element from the set

Example:

TPSetType = state_awset_ps.
TPSetVarName = <<"awset_ps">>.
TPSetVal1 = foo.
TPSetVal2 = bar.
TPSetVal3 = baz.
TPSetAllVals = [TPSetVal1, TPSetVal2, TPSetVal3].

{ok, {TPSet, _, _, _}} = lasp:declare({TPSetVarName, TPSetType}, TPSetType).

{ok, {TPSet1, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(TPSet, {add, TPSetVal1}, self()).
{ok, {TPSet2, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(TPSet1, {add, TPSetVal2}, self()).
% repeat value
{ok, {TPSet3, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(TPSet2, {add, TPSetVal1}, self()).
{ok, {TPSet4, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(TPSet3, {add, TPSetVal3}, self()).

{ok, TPSetRes4} = lasp:query(TPSet4).
sets:to_list(TPSetRes4).
% [bar,baz,foo]

{ok, {TPSet5, _, _, _}} = lasp:update(TPSet4, {rmv, TPSetVal3}, self()).
{ok, TPSetRes5} = lasp:query(TPSet5).
sets:to_list(TPSetRes5).
% [bar,foo]

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